Thursday, May 2, 2013

Penjelasan umum tentang materi reading bahasa inggris SMA



READING


A.    Dibawah ini adalah macam-macam bentuk pertanyaan yang biasa ada dalam soal Reading: 
1.    Menemukan gambaran umum/topic isi bacaan/teks.
Contoh pertanyaan : Which of the following is the most suitable title…?
                                 What is the suitable topic of the passage?
                                  The text mainly tells us about____.
2.    Menemukan informasi tertentu/khusus dari bacaan.
Contoh pertanyaan : When did she make her first solo flight? In…
3.    Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersurat dari bacaan teks/dialog.
Contoh : Which of the following requirements is not mentioned in the passage.
                “They may be classefied in several different ways…”  
     The underlined
                  Word refers to ….
4.    Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersirat dari bacaan teks/dialog.
Contoh : Which statement is NOT TRUE according to the text
                The following are TRUE about Maria EXCEPT…
5.    Menentukan main idea yang tersurat/tersirat dari suatu paragrap.
Contoh :  What is the main idea of the passage? 
                 The fourth paragraph tells us ____.                                                              
6.    Menentukan makna kata, frasa dan kalimat berdasarkan konteks.
Contoh : “Brownie is Chinese breed, it is small, fluffy. And cute.” 
                The underlined word mean ____
7.    Menentukan type text yang digunakan penulis.
Contoh : What type text is used by the writer?
                The text above is in the form of _____.
8.    Menentukan communicative purpose/tujuan kominikativ sebuah teks
Contoh : The communicative putpose of the text above is ___.
               The purpose of the text is _____.
9.    Menyusun kalimat dengan baik.
Contoh : The best order of the sentences above is …
               The best arrangement of the sentences to make a good paragraph is …

B.  Apa yang dimaksud dengan:
1.    TEXT adalah segala bentuk tulisan yang ada pada sebuah buku, artikel dll yang mempunyai makna. Non-continuous text misalnya brosur, label, grafik, tabel, map, diagram dsb. Continuous text misalnya narrative, descriptive,exposition, spoof dsb.
2.    PARAGRAPH adalah bagian dari sebuah tulisan/teks dan mungkin saja terdiri dari sebuah kalimat atau sekumpulan kalimat yang merupakan pengembangan dari pokok pikiran/main topic/main idea.
3.    Kalimat yang menggambarkan main idea/pokok pikiran dari sebuah paragraph disebit TOPIC SENTENCE.
4.    Topic sentence biasanya ada pada awal/akhir/kadang di tengah sebuah paragrap.
5.    Gambaran umum tentang isi bacaan bisa merupakan MAIN TOPIC atau MAIN IDEA.
6.    TOPIC dari sebuah paragrap/teks adalah subjek dari tulisan, sedangkan MAIN IDEA adalah keterangan, penjelasan, uraian topic atau merupakan pendapat penulis tentang topic tulisannya.
7.    Oleh karena itu pertanyaan tentang topic dari sebuah paragraph/text bisa tentang inti isi tulisan yang juga bisa merupakan judul.
8.    Jika pertanyaan menanyakan ‘TOPIC’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam satu kata atau bentuk frasa, tetapi jika pertanyaan menanyakan tentang ‘MAIN IDEA’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam kalimat lengkap.
9.    Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tertentu/specific information’ adalah informasi yang tertera jelas dalam text, biasanya tentang nama, tempat, tanggal, tahun, dsb.
10.    Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tersirat’ adalah informasi yang tidak tertera jelas dalam text. Untuk dapat menjawab pertanyaan spt ini dibutuhkan keterampilan ‘reading between the lines’.
11.    Frasa adalah rangkaian kata yang mempunyai makna.

B.    JENIS-JENIS TEXT: CIRI & CONTOH
1.    Narrative (naratif, dongeng)
a.    Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose)
Menghibur pendengar/pembaca (To entertain reader/listener). Teks bertalian dengan pengalaman nyata, khayal/ peristiwa pelik yang mengarah ke suatu krisis, yang pada akhirnya menemukan penyelesaian.
b.    Struktur Teks (Text Structure)
    Orientation (pengenalan tokoh, waktu, dan tempat)§
    §Complication (pengembangan konflok)
    Resolution (penyelesaian konflik)§
c.    Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan:
    Nouns (kata benda) tertentu sebagai kata ganti orang, hewan dan benda tertentu dalam cerita misalnya stepsister (saudara tiri), housework (pekerjaan rumah tangga), dsb.§
    Adjectives (kata sifat) yang membentuk noun phrase, misalnya long white hair, two red apple, dsb.§
    Time connectives dan conjunction untuk mengurutkan kejadian-kejadian, misalnya §the next morning, then, before, that, soon, dsb.
    Adverbs untuk menunjukan lokasi kejadian/peristiwa, misalnya here, happily ever after, dsb.§
    Action verbs dalam past tense seperti stayed, climed, saw dsb.§
    Saying verbs yang menandai ucapan seperti said, told, promised, dan thinking verbs yang menandai pikiran, persepsi atau perasaan tokoh dalam cerita, misalnya thought, understood, felt, dsb.§
d.    Contoh teks narrative


Orientation


Complication 1


Resolution 1



Complication 2

Resolution 2    Snow White
Once upon a time, there lived a little girl named Snow White. She lived with her uncle and Aunt because her parents were dead.
One day, she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking about leaving her in the castle because they both wanted to go toAmerica and they didn’t have enough money to take her.
Snow White didn’t want her Uncle and Aunt to do this so she decides it would be best if she ran away. The nextmorning she ran away from home when her Aunt and Uncle were having breackfast. She ran away into the woods.
Then, she saw this little cottage. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell sleep.
Meanwhile, the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. They went inside. There they found Snow White sleeping. Then, she woke up. She saw the dwarfs. The dwarf said, “What is your name?” She said, “My name is Snow White.”
Doc, one of the dwarfs, said, “If you wish, you may live here with us. She said, “Oh could I? Thank you.” Then she told the dwarfs the whole story, and she and the seven dwarfs lived happily ever after.

2.    News Item (Berita)
a.    Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose)
Memberitakan kepada pembaca, pendengar/penonton tentang peristiwa-peristiwa atau kejadian-kejadian yang dipandang penting atau layak diberitakan.
b.    Struktur Teks (Text Structure)
    Kejadian inti§
    Latar belakang: elaborasi kejadian, orang yang terlibat, tempat kejadian, dsb.§
    Sumber informasi: komentar saksi kejadian, pendapat para ahli, dsb.§
c.    Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan:
    Informasi singkat tertuang dalam headline menggunakan action verbs, saying verbs, misal say, tell, dsb. Menggunakan kata keterangan, misalnya badly injured, the most §beautiful bride in the worl, dsb.
d.    Contoh teks News Item


Kejadian inti






Latar belakang:
Elaborasi









Sumber Informasi    Town Contaminated
Moscow- A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another soviet nuclesr catastrophe, which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town.
Yelena Vazrshaskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotova-22 near Vladivostock.
The accident, which occurred 13 months before the Chernobly disaster, spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town, but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union. Residents war told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. And  those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrery.
A board of investigation was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy.

3.    Procedure (prosedur)
a.    Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose)
Memberi petunjuk tentang cara melakukan sesuatu melalui serangkaian tindakan/langkah.
b.    Struktur Teks (Text Structure)
    Tujuan Kegiatan§
    Bahan-bahan§
    Langkah-langkah§
c.    Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan:
    Pola kalimat imperative, misalnya Cut, Don’t mix, dsb.§
    Action verbs, misalnya turn, put, don’t mix, dsb.§
    Connectives untuk mengurutkan kegiatan, misalnya then, while, dsb.§
    Adverbials untuk menyatakan rinci waktu, tempat, cara yang akurat, misalnya for five minutes, 2 centimeters from §the top, dsb.
d.    Contoh teks Procedure

Tujuan

Bahan




Langkah-langkah    How to Make a Cheese Omelet

Ingredients
1 egg, 50 g cheese. 1 cup milk, 3 table spoons cooking oil, a pinch of salt and pepper
Utensils
Frying pan, fork, spatula, cheese grater, bowl, plate
Method
1.    Crack an egg into a bowl.
2.    Whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth.
3.    Add milk and whisk well.
4.    Grate the cheese into the bowl and stir.
5.    Heat the oil in a frying pan.
6.    Pour the mixture into the frying pan
7.    Turn the omelet with a spatula when it browns
8.    Cook both sides
9.    Place on a plate; season with salt and pepper.
10.    Eat while warm.

4.     Report (Laporan Hasil Pengamatan)
Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose)
Menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu apa adanya, sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis. Sesuatu yang dapat dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gejala alam, lingkungan benda buatan manusia, atau gejala-gejala sosial. Deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat berupa simpulan umum, misalnya ikan paus termasuk binatang mamalia karena ikan tersebut melahirkan anaknya. Untuk membuat laporan semacam ini, siswa perlu mengamati dan membandingkan ikan paus dengan binatang lainnya yang memiliki ciri-ciri yang sama. Siswa dapat mencoba membuat teks laporan tentang, misalnya rumah sangat sederhana, warung tegal, sekolah, rumah sakit, dsb.
a.    Struktur Teks (Text Structure)
    Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan, keterangan dan klasifikasinyaTujuan Kegiatan§
    Deskripsi§
b.    Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan:
    General nouns, seperti Reptil in Comodo Island, dsb.§
    Relating verbs untuk menjelaskan ciri, misalnya reptile are scaly animal (ciri ini berlaku untuk semua reptilia),dsb.§
    Section verbs dalam menjelaskan perilaku, misal lizards cannot fly, dsb.§
    Present tense untuk menyatakan suatu yang umum, misalnya komodo dragon usually weigh more than 160 kg, dsb.§
    Istilah tekhnis, misalnya water contains oxygent and hydrogen, dsb.§
    Paragraf dengan topic sentences untuk menyusun sejumlah Informasi.§
c.    Contoh teks Report


Pernyataan tentang       subjek laporan

Deskripsi


    The Pelican Report

The white pelican is one of the most succesful fish eating birds.



The success is largely due to its command hunting behavior. A group, perhaps two dozen birds, will gather in a curved src some distance off shore. The bird then begin to move forward towards the shore, beating the water furiously with their wings, driving the fish before them
When the water is shallow enough for the bird to reach the fish, the formaion breaks up as each dips its bill into the water to scoops up its meal. As the bird lifts its head, the water drains from its bill leaving the fish which are then swallowed Pelicans are among the oldest group of birds. Fossils of this genus have been found dating back 40 million years.
    
5.    Descriptive
a.    Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose)
Mendeskripsikan (menggambarkan) ciri-ciri seseorang, benda atau tempat tertentu.
b.    Struktur Teks (Text Structure)
    Pengenalan subjek§
    Ciri-ciri subjek, misalnya tampilan fisik, kualitas, prilaku umum, sifat-sifat.§
c.    Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan:
    Nouns tertentu misalnya teacher, house, my cat, dsb.§
    Simple present tense§
    Detiled noun phrase untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek, misalnya It was a large open rowboat, a sweet young lady, dsb.§
    Adjectives, yang bersifat describing, numbering classifying, misalnya, two strong legs, sharp white fang, dsb.§
    Relating verbs untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek, misalnya, My mum is realy cool, It has very tick fur, dsb.§
    Thinking verbs dan feeling verbs untuk mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penulis tentang subjek, misalnya Police belive the suspect is armed, I think it is the clever animal, dsb.§
    Action verbs, misalnya Our new puppy bites our shoes, dsb.§
    Adverbials untuk memberikan informasi tambahan tentang perilaku tersebut, misal fast at the tree house,dsb.§
    Bahasa figurative, seperti simile, metafor. Misalnya John is white as chalk, sat tigh, dsb.§
d.    Contoh Teks Descriptive



Subjek 
                                                          
Deskripsi


    MacQuarie University

MacQuarie is one of the largest unuversities in Australia. This year, in 2004, it celebrates its 40th anniversary.
The university is located at the North Ride Greenbelt, Sydney, where the New South Wales government sets aside 135 hectars for the institution. In 1964, MacQuarie area was a rural retreat on the city fringe, but today the campus and its surrondings have evolved beyond recognition.The white pelican is one of the most succesful fish eating birds. North Ride District has growen into a district of intensive occupatian anchored by a vibrant and growing university.
One of the highlights of the landsape is the Mars Creek zone. It comprises landscaped creek sides and valley floor, a gress amphitheatre,andartificial lake surounded by rock and pebbels, native plants and eucalypts.


6.    Anecdote (cerita lucu)
a.    Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose)
Menceritakan kejadian/peristiwa lucu berdasarkan khayalan atau peristiwa nyata yang bertujuan menghibur.
b.    Struktur Teks (Text Structure)
    Abstrak§
    Pengenalan§
    Krisis§
    Tindakan§
    Koda (prubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh dan pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita)§
c.    Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan:
    Seruan/kata seru, pertanyaan retorik dan kata-kata seperti Listen to this! And do you know what? It’s awful, isn’t it? dsb§
    Action verbs, misalnya go, write, dsb.§
    Conjuctions yang berhubungan dengan waktu, seperti then, afterwards, dsb.§


d.    Contoh Teks Anecdote

Abstract


Orientation

Crisis


Reaction/ tindakan



Coda/ koda    Soon after Dave left college, one of his uncles, who was rich died and left Dave a lot of money.

So he decided to set up his own real estate agency.

He had only been there for a few hours when he heard some onr coming towards the door of hos offoce.

“It’s my first customer!” he thought. He quickly p[icked up the telephone and pretended to be very busy answering an important call from someone in New York who wanted to buy a big and expensive house in the country.

The man knocked at the door while this was going on, came in and waited politely for the agent to finish his conversation. Then he said to me, “I’m from the telephone company, and I was sent here to connect your telephone.”

7.    Analytical Exposition (eksposisi analitia)
a.    Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose)
Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar/pembaca) bahwa ada masalah yang tentunya perlu mendapat perhatian.
b.    Struktur Teks (Text Structure)
    Pernyataan pendapat/ Thesis statement (tujuan memperkenalkan topik)§
    Argumen terdiri dari point yang dikemukakan dan elaborasi§
    Penguatan pernyataan/conclusion§
c.    Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan:
    General nouns, misal car, pollution, leaded petrol car, dsb.§
    Abstrac nouns, misalnya policy, government , dsb.§
    Relating verbs, misalnya It is important, dsb.§
    Action verbs misalnya, She must save, dsb.§
    Thinking verbs, misalnya Many people believe, dsb.§
    Modal verbs, misalnya We must preserve, dsb.§
    Modal adverbs, misalnya certainly, dsb.§
    Connectives, misalnya firstly, secondly, dsb.§
    Bahas evaluatif, misalnya important, valuable, dsb.§
    Kalimat pasif (passive voice)§
d.    Contoh Teks Analytical Exposition

Pernyataan pendapat



Argumentasi



Penguatan pernyataan (conclusion)    Air pollution is one of the harmful substances that causes demage to the environment, human healt, and quality of life. It makes people sick like having breathing problems and cancer.

Pollutants also come from other sources. For instance, decomposing garbage in landfills and solid waste disposal sites emits methane gas and many product give off VOCs

Unlike pollutants from human activity however, natural pollutanta tend to remain in the atmosphere for a short time and do not lead to permanent atmosphere change.
8.    Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory)
a.    Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose)
Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar/pembaca) bahwa seharusnya demikian atau tidak demikian .
b.    Struktur Teks (Text Structure)
    Pernyataan isu yang dipersoalkan§
    Argumen : berupa alasan mengapa ada keprihatinan, dan mengarah ke rekomendasi§
    Recomendasi : pernyataan tentang bagaimana seharusnya atau tidak seharusnya§
c.    Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan:
    Abstrac nouns,misalnya policy,government dsb.§
    Technical verbs, misalnya species of animals,dsb.§
    Relating verbs, misalnya should be, doesn’t seem to have been , dsb.§
    Action verbs, misalnya, we must save, dsb.§
    Thinking verbs, misalnya I believe , dsb.§
    Modal verbs, misalnya We must preserve, dsb.§
    Modal adverbs, misalnya certainly,we, dsb.§
    Connectives, misalnya firstly, secondly, dsb.§
    Simple present tense§
    Bahas evaluatif, misalnya important, valuable, dsb.§
    Kalimat pasif (passive voice)§
d.    Contoh Teks Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory)

Pernyataan isue yang dipersoalkan


Argumentasi









Rekomendasi



    In all discussion over the removal of lead from petrol ( and the atmosphere), there doesn’t seem to have been any mention of the diffence between driving in the city and in the country.

While I realise my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive, I feel that when you travel through the country,where you only see another car every five to ten minutes,the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads.
Those who want to penalise older , leaded petrol vehicles and their owners donn’t seem to appreciate thet in the country there is no public transport to fall back upon and ones own vehicle is the only way to get about.

I feel that country people, who often have to travel huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend a great deal of money on petrol,should be treated differently to the people who live in the city



9.    Explanation ( Penjelasan )
a.    Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose)
Menerangkan proses-proses yang terjadi dalam pembentukan atau kegiatan yang terkait dengan fenomena dunia ilmiah, sosial-budaya, atau yang bertujuan menjelaskan.
b.    Struktur Teks (Text Structure)
    Penjelasan umum§
    Penjelasan proses§
    Penutup§
c.    Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan:
    General dan abstrac nouns , misalnya word chopping, earthquakes;§
    Actions verbs;§
    Simple present tense;§
    Passive voice;§
    Conjunctions of time dan cause;§
    Nouns phrase, misalnya the large cloud;§
    Abstract nouns, misalnya the temperature;.§
    Adverbial phrases;§
    Complex sentences;§
    Bahasa teknis ;§
    Kalimat pasif (passive voice)§
d.    Contoh dan Struktur Teks Explaination 


Penjelasan umum




Penjelsan proses





Penutup    Making Paper from Woodchips
Woodchipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products form forest tree.
The woodchipping process begins when the trees are cut down in a selected area of the forest called a coupe.
Next the tops and and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill.
At the mill, the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper wich cuts them into pieces called woodchips.
The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities.at this stage they are either exported in this form or damaged into pulp by chemical and heat
The pulp then bleached and the water content is removed
Finally, the pulp is rolled out to make paper

10.    Review ( Ulasan atau tinjauan )
a.    Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose)
Melakukan kritik terhadap peristiwa atau karya seni untuk pembaca atau pendengar, khalayak ramai, misalnya film, pertunjukan, dan buku.
b.    Struktur Teks (Text Structure)
    Pengenalan§
    Evaluasi 1§
    Evaluasi 2§
    Tafsiran§
    Evaluasi 3§
    Evaluasi 4, dan sebagainya.Jika ada§
    Rangkuman§
c.    Ciri kebahasaan :
    Terfokus pada partisipan tertentu§
Menggunakan:
    Adjective, menunjukan sikap, seperti bad,good;§
    Klausa panjang dan kompleks;§
    Metafor.§
d.    Contoh dan Struktur Teks Review


Pengenalan/
Orientasi

Evaluasi 1


Evaluasi 2



Tafsiran











Rangkuman    Harry Pooter and the Order of the Phoenix
I absoluttely love the Harry Potter series,and all of the books will always hold a special place in my heart.

I have to say that off all of the books,however, this was not my favorite.

When the series began it was as much of a “feel good” experience as a huge mug of hot cocoa. The stories were bright, fast-paced, intriguing, and ultimately satisfying.

Order of the Phoenix is a different kind of book. In some instances this works… you feel a whole new level of intensity truly moved by the last page. Other time the book just has slightly a reary, depressing feel. The galloping pace of the other books has slowed to a trot here, and parts of it do seem long, as if we’re reading all about Harry “just hanging out” instead of having his usual adventures. Reading in detail about Herry cleaning up an old house, for example-housekeeping is still housekeeping, magical or not, and I’m not very interest in doing it or reading about other people doing it.

A few other changes in this book-the “real” would come much more in to ply rather than the fantasy universe of the previous book, and Harry has apparently been taken of his meds. I know that he had a lot to be grumpy in this book, especially with being a teenager and all, but the sudden change in his character seemed too drastic. He goes from being a warm-heart, considerated person to someone who will bite his best friend’s heads of over nothing. It just seemed like it didn’t fit his character, like he turned into a walking clich of the “angry teen” overnight.
11.    Commentary
a.    Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose)
Menjelaskan proses yang terjadi pada sebuah fenomena sosial sebagai sebuah penomena natural. Teks mengenai ilmu alam menggunakan genre/bentuk teks explaination dalam penyampaiannya.
b.    Struktur Teks (Text Structure)
    Pernyataan umum§
    Penjelasan lanjutan§
c.    Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan:
    General nouns, misalnya evolution, teddy bear, dsb.§
    Past tense§
    conjunction§
d.    Contoh Teks Commentary

Pernyataan umum

    Where did bears come from? Bear as we know him has bot axisted on this earth for every long period of time, but his predecessor may go back many hundreds of years. Most authorities now believe that the handsome, two legged bear of today evolved from a single celled organism a speck of dust perhaps. Then gradually, through natural selection and survival of the speck, cotton wool balls developed. We do not know exactly when the frist soft furnishing appeared on earth, but they must have been very simple beings.

Penjelasan Lanjutan    In the beginning was the Cushion. Not a very ampressive object – simply a lump of padding material held together with some sort of covering – but from this induspicious start developed two reptilian forms that were the direct ancettors of modern bear.

Penjelasan lanjutan    One of the first evolutionary step occurred when a mutant, misshaped cushion was created. He must have appeared very strange to his fellow cushions, but he was the first bean bag frog. Filled with bean, rice or other non-toxic substance, he had two eyes and four legs. Bean Bag Frogs, however, were pretty on kind, being incredibly floppy, and in water they tended to sink.

Penjelasan Lanjutan    At about the same time as the time as the Bean Bag Frog was emerging, the Cushion was developing along different lines into the draught excluder. At first merely a long thin Cushion, it graduallyeveloped eyes, a forked tongue and an a patternbody, its tendency to lie along the bottom of draughty doors perhaps points to the lack of an efficient body cooling mechanism.

Penjelasan Lanjutan    From these rather basic creatures the first Toy Dog developed. Long and thin like a Drought Excluder, and with four leg like a Bean Bag Frog, he still had difficulty in muving about owing to his very short appendages.

Penjelasan lanjutan    Movement became easier with invension of wheel. Dog – on – Wheels was a very succesful species for many years but is now thereatened with extincion. A few remain in captivity but they appear to have difficulty in reproducing them selves under these circumstances.

Penjelasan lanjutan    When the first soft toy stood up and walked on two legs instead of four, modern bear was born.

12. Discussion (Pembahasan)
a.    Tujuan Komunikatif Teks
mengetengahkan suatu masalah (isu) yang ditinjau paling tidak dari 2 (dua) sudut pandang, sebelum sampai pada suatu kesimpulan atau rekomendasi.
b.    Struktur Teks
• Isu;
• pendapat yang mendukung;
-    Gagasan Pokok 1;
-    Elaborasi (uraian),
-    Gagasan Pokok 2;
-    Elaborasi (uraian).
• Pendapat yang menentang;
-    Gagasan Pokok;
-    Elaborasi (uraian).
• Kesimpulan.
c. Ciri Kebahasan:
Mengunakan :
    general nouns untuk menyatakan kategori, misalnya uniforms, alcohol dsb.§
    relating verbs untuk memberi informasi tentang isu yang didiskusikan, misalnya smoking is harmful, dsb§
    thinking verbs untuk mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penulis, misalnya feel, believe, hope, dsb.§
§    action verbs, misalnya We must save, dsb
    additives, contrastives dan causal connectives untuk menghubungkan argumen misalnya similatly, on the other hand, however, dsb.§
    detailed noun groups untuk memberikan informasi secara padu, misalnya the dumping of unwanted kittens, dsb.§
    modalities, seperti perhaps, must, should have been, could be, dsb.§
    adverbias of manner, misalnya deliberately. Hopefully, dsb.§
d. Contoh dan Struktur Teks


Homework
Isu    I have been wondering if homework is necessary


Pendapat yang     I think we should have homework because it helps us to learn and revise our work. Homework helps
Mendukung    People who aren’t very smart to remember what they have learned. Homework is really good because it helps with our education.

Pendapat yang    But, many times, doing homework is not a great idea, I think we shouldn’t heve homework because I
Menentang    Like to go out after school to a restaurant or the movies. Sometimes homework is boring and not importany. I think homework is bad because I like to play and discuss things with my family.

12.    RECOUNT (retell/menceritakan kembali)
a.    Tujuan Komunikatif Teks
Melaporkan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan dengan tujuan memberitakan/ menghibur.
b.    Struktur Teks
• Pendahuluan (orientation): yaitu memberikan informasi tentang apa, siapa,
  dimana dan kapan.
• Rentetan Peristiwa /events: kegiatan/peristiwa yang terjadi yangf disampaikan
   secara berurutan.
• Komentar pribadi dan/ungkapan penilaian (jika ada).
c.  Ciri Kebahasan:
Mengunakan :
    Noun dan pronoun sebagai kata ganti orang, hewan/benda yang terlibat misalnya; Dono, the monkey, we dsb.§
    Action verbs atau kata kerja tindakan, misalnya go, sleep, run, dsb.§
    Past tense misalnya We went to the zoo. She was happy.§
    Conjunction dan time connectives yang mengurutkan peristiwa/kejadian/kegiatyan. Misalnya and, but, then, after that, dsb.§
    Adverbs dan adverb phrases untuk mengungkapkan tempat, waktu dan cara. Misalnya yesterday, at my house, slowly dsb.§
d. Contoh dan Struktur Teks
EARTHQUAKE
Orientation    I was driving along the coast road when the car suddenly lurched to one side.

Event 1     At first I thought a tyre had gone but then I saw telegraph poles collapsing like matchsticks.

Event 2    The rocks came tumbling across the road and I had to abandon the car.

Event 3    When I got back to town, well, as I said, there wasn’t much left.

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